Agreement Of Umar

The Pact of Umar (العهدة العررية, Al-Uhda Al-Umariyya) (637 AD) was an agreement between a submissive Christian population and the Muslim invaders led by Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, the second of the “right-led” caliphs (Rashidun). A.S. Tritton is a scholar who “suggested that the pact was an invention,” because later Muslim conquerors did not apply its terms to their agreements with their non-Muslim subjects that they would have had the pact existed earlier. Another scholar, Daniel C. Dennet, believes that the pact “was no different from any other treaty negotiated during that period and that it is quite reasonable that the pact we have today, as preserved in al-Tabari`s chronicle, is an authentic version of that early treaty.” [7] Historian Abraham P. Bloch writes: “Omar was a tolerant ruler who probably did not impose humiliating conditions on non-Muslims or violate their religious and social freedoms. His name was wrongly associated. with Omar`s restrictive alliance. [16] It was here that an agreement was drawn up defining the rights of the local population. Whenever Muslims conquered a country, they concluded a treaty to ensure that those who were now under their authority were not stripped of their rights. This special agreement was considered the “Umar Contract” (or the Confederation; Pact; Agreement) and the text is still outside the Church, as follows:[2] [1] islam.ru/en/content/story/jerusalem-and-umar-ibn-al-khattab-ra The origins of the pact of `Umar are difficult, if not totally impossible to identify. The opinions of Western scholars on the authenticity of the pact were different. According to Anver M.

Emon, “there is an intense discussion in the secondary literature” about the authenticity of the pact, with scholars disagreeing on whether it may have been born during the reign of Umar b. Al-Khattab [`Umar I] or was “a later invention, retroactively associated with Umar – the caliph who, as you know, led the initial imperial expansion – to give greater normative weight to the Treaty of Dhimma”[7] Several historians suspect that the Pact was written over several centuries, not all at once. Bernard Lewis, widely regarded as one of the most eminent scholars in Jewish history, described the “official” origin of the Pact of Umar: “Muslim historiographical tradition attributes these prescriptions to Caliph Umar I (634-644).” [8] He doubts the validity of this attribution and writes that the document “can hardly be authentic.” [9] Several key facets of the document and its history, including its structure as a letter from the conquered Dhimmi to Caliph `Umar I or one of the generals responsible for the conquering Muslim forces, a lack of physical texts from the time of Umar I that mention either the pact or his relationship with it, and some key phrasings in the pact, which could only have addressed issues of an era after the reign of `Umar I` – make doubtful the traditional attribution of the pact of `Umar to the caliphs `Umar I. . . .